Examination of the various oil component activities revealed that nonanal and citral were the most effective compounds. Conidia are distinctive, ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, olive in colour, and 6–8(− 15) μm long, larger than those of other Penicillium species. The species is classified in the class Fungi, division Ascomycota, subdivision Pezizomycotina, class Eurotiomycetes, subclass Eurotiomycetidae, order Eurotiales, family Trichocomaceae, and genus Penicillium. Pitt, in Food Spoilage Microorganisms, 2006. In response to the health and environmental concerns of the public, attempts have been made to develop methods for controlling pathogen decay without the use of chemical fungicides. Although P. digitatum was slow to produce mycelia in comparison to the large lesions, sporula-tion followed quickly thereafter. SC treatment almost completely inhibited green mold (Penicillium digitatum) development in wound-artificially inoculated l ... DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106878 The known nomenclatural synonyms (obligate or homotypic synonyms) are Aspergillus digitatus Pers.:Fr. Initial symptoms of infection are similar for both molds. (Sinclair, 1972). 3. Their results indicated that ethylene conditioning had neither a deleterious effect on internal and external fruit quality nor on the concentration of phenolic or flavonoids (Fig. Penicillium has remained useful over the years. In culture it is readily recognizable by the formation of rapidly growing olive colonies on both CYA and MEA (35–55 and 35–70 mm diameter, respectively). : Fr.) Ascorbic acid and a number of terpene compounds in citrus fruits, much like their stimulating effect on the germination of P. digitatum spores, can also stimulate mycelial growth of this fungus, which is specific to citrus fruits (Pelser and Eckert, 1977; French et al., 1978). : Fr.) Most isolates are resistant to imazalil, the chemical of choice for control of P. italicum. The extensive postharvest use of chemical fungicides on citrus has caused the development of resistant fungi strains. Sánchez-Torres and Tuset (2011) evaluated the sensitivity of 75 Penicillium digitatum strains to seven different fungicides and found a significant number of strains resistant to fungicides commonly used in citrus. With over 300 accepted species, the Penicillium genus includes some of the most common fungi in the world. Preliminary observations indicated that a minimum exposure period of 20 s at 56°C was needed to inhibit Penicillium digitatum spore germination in vitro. On the other hand, washing wounded lemon fruit peel (epicarp) was found to greatly suppress P. digitatum infection, when the fruit was inoculated with fungal spores, so that only 2% of the fruit showed green mold symptoms. J.I. Up to date, penicillin still plays a vital role in the treatment of bacterial infections. A quantitative detection method for Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum in citrus packinghouses. Penicillium (/ Ë p É n Éª Ë s Éª l i É m /) is a genus of ascomycetous fungi that is of major importance in the natural environment, in food spoilage, and in food and drug production.. However, when a comparable amount of isolated lemon peel oil was topically applied to the washed wounds, 92% of the inoculated wound sites did develop complete green mold symptoms (Arimoto et al., 1995). Searching for the reason for this phenomenon, Eckert and Ratnayake (1994) found that a mixture of volatiles evaporating from the abrasions of wounded oranges were capable of accelerating or inducing germination of P. digitatum spores on water agar as well as within an injury of the rind. Author information: (1)Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. For successful postharvest control, careful fruit harvest and handling procedures should be undertaken that will also reduce the risk of contamination of healthy fruit. Sacc in âStar Rubyâ grapefruit. Spores of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, though capable of germination in pure water to some degree, cannot infect strawberries or cabbage leaves without external nutrients (Jarvis, 1962; Yoder and Whalen, 1975). A new postharvest hot water brushing (HWB) treatment, which sprays hot water on fruit as they move along a belt of brushârollers, induced resistance against green mould decay caused by Penicillium digitatum (Pers. The fungus is able to germinate in artificial media at 5°C and, in some cases, can produce colonies of up to 3 mm in diameter. Postharvest incidence of these fungi is normally very low. Still, another interesting approach to decay control calls for the use of exogenous hormones to induce endogenous defense mechanisms. There is no growth at 37°C. Another common postharvest problem of citrus is sour rot, caused by the yeastlike fungus, Geotrichum candidum. For that reason, not just any random person can create. (2013) identified and cloned the gene that regulates the sucrose non-fermenting protein kinase in P. digitatum. In preharvest–postharvest combined application, all the salts reduced decay by 66–100% in oranges and 78–100% in clementines. Affected areas appear as watery spots with white mycelium produced at the centre. The odor can be strong, as volatile metabolites such as limonene, valencene, ethylene, ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, or methyl acetate have been detected. That is why intensive research is being done in order to come up with a lasting food security solution. Mérat (1821). Sometimes the food people consume can be unsafe. [1â¦ Sacc. Growth of P. digitatum lies between 6 and 37 °C, with a minimum aw for growth near 0.9. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123741301500188, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124115521000028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444505842500022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697341500212, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847300003153, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128031339000060, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128098073000019, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444505842500083, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978185573966650016X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444505842500046, POSTHARVEST DISEASES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum (Green Mold, Blue Mold), Raper and Thom (1949), Onions (1966a), Frisvad and Samson (2004), Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables, Citrus spp. Potassium sorbate, a widely used food preservative, having the status of a generally recognized as safe additive and being particularly effective against fungi, cannot be used as a postharvest fungistat in citrus, because it enhances weight loss (Parra et al., 2014). Benomyl is used as preharvest spray in South Africa and many other citrus-growing countries to prevent Penicillium rots. The genus was first identified in scientific literature by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in his 1809 work Observationes in ordines plantarum naturale. P. digitatum happens to be the main contributor to the loss of citrus to infections.